Uzon, Day Two
It was cold and cloudy today, which is actually a blessing. We have to walk around in thigh-high rubber boots and stand around boiling pots of sulfurous water, and the mosquitoes are murderous.
I think I've got the hang of making a decent espresso in the field, at least with this incredibly delicious water. I found an adapter in an outdoor store in Petropavlovsk that mates the valve socket for my camping stove to cheap cans of cooking gas available practically everywhere. Unfortunately, the cans are completely unstable with any sort of pot or pan sitting on the stove, so I braced the can with some bricks from an old cook fire.
Some espresso on a cold, wet morning.
I packed light, which means that tomorrow I'll be on my last pair of clean pants. Tomorrow I will have to do laundry.
This morning we visited Arkashin spring, which is the other sampling site for the metagenomic data I've been analyzing. It's loaded with realgar (arsenic sulphide), and so it's expected to be full of species that are resistant to the various forms of arsenic, arsenide, arsenate, and possibly arsenic respiring organisms. Alex and Sarah took some samples of the sediment.
Arkashin Spring, one of my metagenomic targets.
We also spent a lot of time looking at a nearby site called K4 well, which is the remains of an old exploratory well drilled sixteen meters into Central Thermal Field. As you can see, the steel has been pretty much destroyed by corrosive hydrogen sulphide gas. The interesting thing about K4 is that the outflow starts out as a mix of steam and boiling water at about 100C, and cools off to about 40C over a space of about three meters. As a result, the organisms that live in each temperature band between 100C and 40C are organized into stripes following the contours of the isotherms.
K4 Well, a possible site for investigating spacial organization of microbes.
Frank and Albert inserted some microscope slides into the flow (if you leave them there for a while, the microbial mat will incorporate the slide which you can then remove to study). I'm very interested in studying this sort of spacial organization, and so Frank gave me a slide to insert transecting three of these bands. Glass is a good conductor of heat, and so I'm not very confident that it will work.
On the way back to the station, we came across a very interesting pool that Albert thought would be a perfect for Bo to try out his electrochemical instruments. Bo didn't come with us for the morning trip because he was still polishing, plating and testing the electrodes for his setup. There obviously isn't any cell phone reception out here in Uzon, but my little Android phone still makes a really great field GPS. I marked the coordinates for the pool as "Red White and Green" (sadly, there was no blue).
For lunch, we had buckwheat with tomato sauce, green peas and tofu (the carnivores added their canned mystery meat). It tasted great, but the buckwheat didn't agree with me at all. I took some anti-acid tablets, and then passed out for an hour. I woke up a bit overwhelmed by the taste of buckwheat and hydrogen sulfide (for some reason, whenever I smell hydrogen sulphide, I seem to keep smelling and tasting it for a long time afterward). Bo still had to work on his electrodes for a while longer, and so I sat around with a cup of tea and waited for the afternoon trip.
Bo packed up his electrodes, data acquisition system, laptop and portable power supply into a huge backpack/duffel, and I guided everyone back to Red White and Green. The Android phone worked great as a field GPS.
Bo getting his first scanning voltammetry data.
This is some of Bo's data from the field. The peaks and dips represent changes in current detected passing from one electrode to the other (in the presence of a reference) as the voltage was swept from zero to -2V and back. The cathodes are made of gold wire plated with mercury film (sort of like old-fashioned dental fillings), and the anode is elemental platinum. Scanning voltammetry is also known as cyclic voltammetry; the trace on the bottom is the return signal when the voltage swept back to zero. In the order they appear in the scan, Bo's first guess as to the identity of each dissolved compound are as following; thiosulphate, hydrogen sulphide, iron sulphide, hydrogen peroxide, iron (or maybe manganese) (II)+, and on the return scan, acid volatile sulphide (AVS).
One of Bo's voltammetry scans; the annotations are based on Bo and Albert's experience with the technique and their best judgment while in the field; this is not their "final" conclusion about the water chemistry. As the science goes, think of this as somewhere between raw ingredients and the finished product, like bowl of cake batter.
When we got back, I cooked dinner; pasta with corn, onions Lithuanian-style cheese and some Georgian spice mix. The carnivores added a mysterious can of meat with a picture of a cow on it.
I went outside this evening to send a twitter update with the Iridium phone, and I thought I was safe from the swarming mosquitoes in my bug suit and thick socks. When I say "swarm," I really mean it. As I stood on the boardwalk, it sounded exactly like a 2010 World Cup game, complete with vuvuzelas. I miscalculated badly, and I got twenty-nine bites on my feet -- through my hiking socks -- in the three minutes I was standing still. I didn't notice until my feet started burning, like the way your mouth burns when you eat a chili pepper. I ran inside and dunked my feet in a bucket of near-freezing stream water until the burning stopped. Then soap and more freezing water, topical astringent, and three antihistamine pills. I have a little bit of swelling, but hopefully not enough to stop me from getting out tomorrow.
To my delight, the entomologist staying here decided this was a great evening to take some samples of her own. She fired up the generator and put a huge flood light on the upstairs portico. Then she used sweep nets to capture bucketloads of mosquitoes, which she preserved in formaldehyde (or something of the sort). It warmed my heart to see that.
Before heading to bed, I figured out how to bathe with three liters of water. The pump is broken, and so if you want water, you have to lug it from the stream, and if you want hot water, you have to use the tea kettle.
1. Uzon, Day One
2. Updates, continuing
3. Uzon, Day Zero
4. Back from Uzon
5. Last minute preparations
6. Uzon field season team, 2010
7. Live from Petropavlovsk
8. Kamchatka for those who've never played Risk
9. Science, the practice of
10. I'm going to Kamchatka!